Mood for Life

nutrition, exercise, meditation optimized

Saffron for depression


According to ancient Greek mythology, Hermes and his friend Krokos were horse-playing and Hermes accidentally killed Krokos through a head injury, with three blood drops from his head falling on the top of a flower, creating three stigmata and naming this plant thereafter Krokos (Crocus)[1]. Thus the ancient and godly identification of this plant and saffron.

Saffron is the dried stigma (the top part in the center of a flower which receives the pollen and on which germination takes place) of the blue-purple flower Crocus sativus L., and it has a long history of use as a spice, coloring agent, and medicine. Due to how saffron is grown and harvested, saffron is considered one of the world’s most expensive spices (upwards of $11,000 per kg, requiring 450,000 hand-picked stigmas)[2]. Apart from its traditional value as a spice and coloring agent (originally for the Persian carpet industry), saffron has a long history of medicinal use spanning over 2,500 years[3].

This use of saffron in traditional medicine included for cramps, asthma, menstruation disorders, liver disease, and painful dysmenorrhoea[4], among many other uses.  Evidence from recent in vitro and in vivo research indicates that saffron has potential anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing properties[5] [6].

Neurodegenerative disorders

Administration of saffron 30 mg/day (15 mg twice daily) was found to be as effective as a leading medication for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (donepezil) in a placebo-controlled double bind for treatment in subjects of 55 years and older[7] but with a better side effect profile.  Although there are a growing number of non-human animal studies and theories why saffron could be neuroprotective for Alzheimer’s Disease and other neurodegenerative conditions, clinical studies are too few to make any tentative conclusions to date.

Mood disorders

In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, saffron was effective for the treatment of mild to-moderate depression[8] [9].

A systematic review of randomized control trials examining the effectiveness of saffron in mood disorders revealed a statistically significant effect on improved mood on subjects clinically diagnosed with depression[10]; the dosing was typically 30 mg/ day.

In clinical studies, the use of saffron extract at doses of 20–30 mg/day twice daily for the treatment of mild to moderate depression has been compared with currently marketed antidepressants such as fluoxetine[11] (20 mg/day twice daily) and imipramine[12] (100 mg/day three times daily). So these comparative evaluations revealed that saffron was equally effective as chemically synthesized marketed pharmaceutics, in mild or moderate depression without causing the typical side effects of the artificial preparations.

Saffron may act in a manner similar to antidepressants to improve mood by inhibiting serotonin reuptake[13] or there could be multiple pathways involving, for example, its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties.

Saffron contains in excess of 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds and many non-volatile active components, many of which are carotenoids[14] . Safranal is the compound primarily responsible for saffron’s aroma.  Safranal has shown to have anti-convulsant and anxiolytic effects[15] as well as antidepressant properties[16]

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

One randomized controlled trial examined the effects of saffron supplementation on premenstrual syndrome[17]. It was found that found that women with regular menstrual cycles experiencing premenstrual syndrome who took 30 mg/d of saffron supplementation for eight weeks reported relief in premenstrual symptoms and depression levels compared to placebo.  Remarkably, just the aroma alone – without otherwise any oral intake of saffron was itself found effective in relief of PMS symptoms in another placebo controlled double blind study[18], indicating effectiveness at very small does and the likely active component being Safranal.


[1] Koulakiotis, N., Pittenauer, E., Halabalaki, M., Skaltsounis, L., Allmaier, G., & Tsarbopoulos, A. (2011). Isolation and Tandem Mass Spectometric Characterization of Selected Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) Bioactive Compounds.Planta Med Planta Medica, 77(12). doi:10.1055/s-0031-1282560

[2] Gohari, A., Saeidnia, S., & Mahmoodabadi, M. (2013). An overview on saffron, phytochemicals, and medicinal properties. Pharmacognosy Reviews Phcog Rev,7(1), 61. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.112850

[3] Srivastava, R., Ahmed, H., Dixit, R., D., & Saraf, S. (2010). Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(8), 200. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.70919

[4] Kianbakht, S., & Ghazavi, A. (2011). Immunomodulatory Effects of Saffron: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Phytother. Res. Phytotherapy Research, 25(12), 1801-1805. doi:10.1002/ptr.3484

[5] Abdullaev, F., & Espinosa-Aguirre, J. (2004). Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials. Cancer Detection and Prevention, 28(6), 426-432. doi:10.1016/j.cdp.2004.09.002

[6] Bathaie, S. Z., & Mousavi, S. Z. (2010). New Applications and Mechanisms of Action of Saffron and its Important Ingredients. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50(8), 761-786. doi:10.1080/10408390902773003

[7] Akhondzadeh, S., Sabet, M. S., Harirchian, M. H., Togha, M., Cheraghmakani, H., Razeghi, S., . . . Moradi, A. (2010). ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: A 16-week, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 35(5), 581-588. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01133.x

[8] Akhondzadeh, S., Tahmacebi-Pour, N., Noorbala, A., Amini, H., Fallah-Pour, H., Jamshidi, A., & Khani, M. (2005). Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.Phytother. Res. Phytotherapy Research, 19(2), 148-151. doi:10.1002/ptr.1647

[9] Moshiri, E., Basti, A. A., Noorbala, A., Jamshidi, A., Abbasi, S. H., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2006). Crocus sativus L. (petal) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression: A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.Phytomedicine, 13(9-10), 607-611. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2006.08.006

[10] Hausenblas, H. A., Heekin, K., Mutchie, H. L., & Anton, S. (2015). A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on psychological and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 13(4), 231-240. doi:10.1016/s2095-4964(15)60176-5

[11] Noorbala, A., Akhondzadeh, S., Tahmacebi-Pour, N., & Jamshidi, A. (2005). Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A double-blind, randomized pilot trial. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 97(2), 281-284. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.11.004

[12] Akhondzadeh, S., Fallah-Pour, H., Afkham, K., Jamshidi, A., & Khalighi-Cigaroudi, F. (2004). Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A pilot double-blind randomized trial [ISRCTN45683816]. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine BMC Complement Altern Med, 4(1). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-4-12

[13] Hausenblas, H. A., Saha, D., Dubyak, P. J., & Anton, S. D. (2013). Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 11(6), 377-383. doi:10.3736/jintegrmed2013056

[14] Sampathu, S. R., Shivashankar, S., Lewis, Y. S., & Wood, A. B. (1984). Saffron ( Crocus Sativus Linn.) — Cultivation, processing, chemistry and standardization.C R C Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 20(2), 123-157. doi:10.1080/10408398409527386

[15] Hosseinzadeh, H., & Talebzadeh, F. (2005). Anticonvulsant evaluation of safranal and crocin from Crocus sativus in mice. Fitoterapia, 76(7-8), 722-724. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2005.07.008

[16] Hosseinzadeh, H., Karimi, G., & Niapoor, M. (2004). Antidepressant Effect Of Crocus Sativus L. Stigma Extracts And Their Constituents, Crocin And Safranal, In Mice. Acta Hortic. Acta Horticulturae, (650), 435-445. doi:10.17660/actahortic.2004.650.54

[17] Agha-Hosseini, M., Kashani, L., Aleyaseen, A., Ghoreishi, A., Rahmanpour, H., Zarrinara, A., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2008). Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: A double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trial. BJOG: Int J O & G BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 115(4), 515-519. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01652.x

[18] Fukui, H., Toyoshima, K., & Komaki, R. (2011). Psychological and neuroendocrinological effects of odor of saffron (Crocus sativus).Phytomedicine, 18(8-9), 726-730. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2010.11.013

All about vitamin D and mood


The fourth vitamin to be discovered, vitamin D, is technically not a vitamin as one’s body can produce it – it just requires sunlight.  No one is suggesting that sunlight is a vitamin per se.  And only a relatively short span of radiation from the sun is involved, the so-called UVB of the ultraviolet spectrum.  The intensity of UVB available depends on the weather, season, location on earth, and time of day; in the United States it maximizes between 10 am and 4 pm between April and October.

With moderate direct exposure to the summer sun (say 5 – 30 minutes twice a week), the body will make 10,000 to 20,000 IU. Sunscreen can effectively block UVB absorption; for an individual with frequent sun exposure (greater than twice per week), it might be prudent to place sunscreen after the first 10 – 15 minutes of sun exposure to avoid skin cancer but allow vitamin D production.  As our bodies can store vitamin D, it is thought that sufficient exposure during spring, summer, and early fall should be sufficient to provide needed vitamin D during the winter months.

So this is another recent modification in our evolution – to stay indoors a lot more than our ancestors, decreasing our vitamin D production.  The National Academies Institute of Medicine has no guidelines for vitamin D through sun exposure; they do have RDA but it is based on food intake.

The reaction of cholesterol (in the form of 7-dehydrocholesterol) in the skin with sunlight actually produces several fat-soluble related compounds, the most important being cholecalciferol, vitamin D3, and ergocalciferol, vitamin D2. The term “vitamin D” includes both of these compounds.

Very few foods in nature contain vitamin D, although some food products have vitamin D as an additive. To manufacture vitamin D industrially, 7-dehydrocholesterol,  a substance typically obtained from fish liver[1],or lanolin extracted from shorn sheep wool, is exposed to UVB light, producing vitamin D3. Vitamin D cannot be manufactured directly; it requires the photochemical process.

To become biologically active, vitamin D has to undergo two transformative reactions, one in the liver, then another in the kidney.

Vitamin D deficiency to the extent of causing rickets or osteomalacia is rare in the developed world but what we might call vitamin-D insufficiency, a lower than ideal biologically active form of vitamin D, appears to be quite common, particularly in the elderly.

Vitamin D toxicity is also rare.  There is a feedback loop associated with vitamin D production in the skin that lowers its production as adequate amounts are reached.  This natural regulatory  mechanism doesn’t apply to supplementation but for daily supplemental intake of 2,000 IU (about 50 micrograms) per day, there is very little risk of toxicity.[2]

As vitamin D is fat soluble, it requires the presence of fat for absorption; some supplements encapsulate cholecalciferol, vitamin D3, with fat; otherwise often it is recommended to take with a meal containing some degree of fat.

We have learned relatively recently that vitamin D has a lot larger effect on the body than just calcium absorption; for example, it has to do with modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation[3]. And mood states.

Vitamin D and psychiatric disorders

Vitamin D acts on receptors in a variety of regions in the brain such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and substantia nigra and as such can influence neurochemistry[4] cognition, emotion, and behavior. Vitamin D deficiency in early life affects neuronal differentiation, and brain structure and function and appears to have some influence on disorders with a developmental basis, such as autistic spectrum disorder and schizophrenia ontogeny and brain structure and function[5].

The initial suggestion that vitamin D may be linked to clinical depression was based on the relation between low vitamin D and high prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (now considered to be a depressive disorder with seasonal pattern[6]) in winter at high latitudes[7].  One treatment modality for clinical depression with seasonal pattern is light therapy, although no ultra-violet light is used.  Vitamin D insufficiency is not considered to be directly causative for this disorder.

However, vitamin D concentrations have been shown to be low in many patients suffering from mood disorders and have been associated with poor cognitive function[8] [9]. For example, data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess association between serum vitamin D and depression in 7,970 residents of the United States[10]. In that study, the likelihood of having depression in persons with vitamin D deficiency was found to be significantly higher compared to those with vitamin D sufficiency.

One thorough systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials was conducted and found that vitamin D insufficiency was strongly associated with clinical depression[11].  Another systematic review and meta-analysis showed a statistically significant improvement in depression with Vitamin D supplements[12].

Use of vitamin D as adjunctive therapy, i.e. together with an antidepressant medication in patients with vitamin D insufficiency has shown to be superior to an antidepressant alone[13]

What to do

This is another situation where recent changes in human lifestyle – here being indoors more than outdoors, can lead to a nutrient deficiency.  Because it is so common to have a vitamin D insufficiency and the health consequences, specifically mood states, I recommend more time in the outdoors, including some limited time (say 10 minutes a day) with face and arms without sunscreen.

If you do not spend regular time in the sun, I do recommend a vitamin D3 supplement to be taken before, during, or directly after a meal.  I think it wise to take these supplements during the winter months in any case.

Should you question whether or not you may be clinically depressed, professional assessment certainly is recommended as always; initial workup may include serum vitamin D levels (usually 25(OH)D is measured but various labs use different techniques resulting in varying “normal” level ranges).

A strict ethical vegan, however, faces a dilemma as the sources of vitamin D3 supplementation (and all “fortified products such as almond milk and tofu) are animal-based. Some literature supports vitamin D2 intake as sufficient, but good studies are too scarce to suggest this as the sole source for supplementation; vitamin D2 can be obtained from certain mushrooms set out in the sun for 10 minutes or so prior to consumption and there are supplements available from this source. It would appear that lifestyle emphasis on “fun in the sun” is indicated for vegans.


[1] Takeuchi A, Okano T, Sayamoto M, Sawamura S, Kobayashi T, Motosugi M, Yamakawa T; Okano; Sayamoto; Sawamura; Kobayashi; Motosugi; Yamakawa (1986). “Tissue distribution of 7-dehydrocholesterol, vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in several species of fishes”. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology32 (1): 13–22.

[2] Ross, A. C., Manson, J. E., Abrams, S. A., Aloia, J. F., Brannon, P. M., Clinton, S. K., . . . Shapses, S. A. (2011). The 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D: What Dietetics Practitioners Need to Know⁎⁎This article is a summary of the Institute of Medicine report entitled Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (available at for dietetics practitioners; a similar summary for clinicians has also been published (Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Gallagher JC, Gallo RL, Jones G, Kovacs CS, Mayne ST, Rosen CJ, Shapses SA. The 2011 report on Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: What clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:53-58).Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111(4), 524-527. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.01.004

[3] DRI – Dietary Reference Intakes – Calcium and Vitamin D20122 DRI – Dietary Reference Intakes – Calcium and Vitamin D . Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, , ISBN: 13‐978‐0‐309‐16394‐1. (2012). Nutrition & Food Science, 42(2), 131-131. doi:10.1108/nfs.2012.

[4] Yue, W., Xiang, L., Zhang, Y., Ji, Y., & Li, X. (2014). Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D with Symptoms of Depression After 6 Months in Stroke Patients. Neurochem Res Neurochemical Research, 39(11), 2218-2224. doi:10.1007/s11064-014-1423-y

[5] Eyles, D. W., Burne, T. H., & Mcgrath, J. J. (2013). Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 34(1), 47-64. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2012.07.001

[6] Gabbard, Glen O. Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders2 (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 1296.

[7] Stumpf WE, Privette TH: Light, vitamin D and psychiatry. Role of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (soltriol) in etiology and therapy of seasonal affective disorder and other mental processes. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1989, 97:285–294.

[8] Wilkins, C. H., Sheline, Y. I., Roe, C. M., Birge, S. J., & Morris, J. C. (2006). Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Low Mood and Worse Cognitive Performance in Older Adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(12), 1032-1040. doi:10.1097/01.jgp.0000240986.74642.7c

[9] Przybelski, R. J., & Binkley, N. C. (2007). Is vitamin D important for preserving cognition? A positive correlation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration with cognitive function. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 460(2), 202-205. doi:10.1016/

[10] Ganji, V., Milone, C., Cody, M. M., Mccarty, F., & Wang, Y. T. (2010). Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int Arch Med International Archives of Medicine, 3(1), 29. doi:10.1186/1755-7682-3-29

[11] Anglin, R. E., Samaan, Z., Walter, S. D., & Mcdonald, S. D. (2013). Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(2), 100-107. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.106666

[12] Spedding, S. (2014). Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws. Nutrients, 6(4), 1501-1518. doi:10.3390/nu6041501

[13] Khoraminya, N., Tehrani-Doost, M., Jazayeri, S., Hosseini, A., & Djazayery, A. (2012). Therapeutic effects of vitamin D as adjunctive therapy to fluoxetine in patients with major depressive disorder. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(3), 271-275. doi:10.1177/0004867412465022

Aspirin from plants



Perhaps the first plant nutraceutic modified slightly to become a large commercial success was salicylic acid, found in particularly high amounts in the inner lining of white willow tree bark and central to defense mechanisms in plants against pathogen attack and environmental stress. It is the principal metabolite of the medication aspirin, which works through a completely different pathway in humans to affect an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic response.  However, dosing in isolated concentrated form resulted in severe gastrointestinal distress, so that a buffered form was developed – and patented – in 1900 as Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) by Bayer[1].  This approach to acquiring medicinal benefits from salicylic acid is still flawed by the fact that there is an increased risk of bleeding even for low-dose therapy.  About one in ten people on chronic low-dose aspirin develop stomach or intestinal ulcers, which can perforate the gut and cause life-threatening bleeding.[2]


There is a better way to take advantage of the healing properties of salicylic acid: eating plants.  All plants contain salicylic acid and vegetarians have as much in their blood as omnivores who take aspirin supplements – but without the risk[3].  Apparently this has been known empirically since the third millennium BC.


This is another recurring theme: plant-based diets can obviate the need for many supplements and prescribed medications.  Plant-based diets are anti-inflammatory not only because of salicylic acid but because of their many other anti-inflammatory phytonutrients that help prevent the body from overproducing inflammatory compounds.  Of course plant-based diets minimize one’s intake of inflammatory precursors present in meat and dairy products in the first place.  More on that later.


Just to review, this amazing substance, salicylic acid, the active metabolite of aspirin and a plant hormone, plays a central role in the immune system of plants by activating the production of pathogen-fighting proteins[4].  It can transmit the distress signal throughout the plant and even to neighboring plants[5].  But the amazing fact is its crossover and apparent inverse role that it has in humans: it reduces the immune response, i.e. serves as an anti-inflammatory.  This has an important role then in chronic inflammatory states such as cardio- and cerebrovascular disease, stroke, arthritis, even certain cancers.  Recently, mental disorders have been linked to chronic inflammatory states[6] and aspirin is finding a use for disorders ranging from mood disorders[7] to schizophrenia[8].


So this remarkable agent helps prevent disease in both plants and animals but by completely different mechanisms.


[1] Interestingly, Aspirin ® and Heroin ® were once trademarks belonging to Bayer. After Germany lost World War I, Bayer was forced to give up both trademarks as part of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.

[2] Yeomans, N., Lanas, A., Talley, N., Thomson, A., Daneshjoo, R., Eriksson, B., . . . Hawkey, C. (2005). Prevalence and incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers during treatment with vascular protective doses of aspirin. Aliment Pharmacol Ther Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 22(9), 795-801.

[3] Paterson, J., Baxter, G., Dreyer, J., Halket, J., Flynn, R., & Lawrence, J. (2008). Salicylic Acid sans Aspirin in Animals and Man: Persistence in Fasting and Biosynthesis from Benzoic Acid. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry J. Agric. Food Chem., 56(24), 11648-11652.

[4] Pieterse, C., Van Der Does, C., Zamioudis, C., Leon-Reyes, A., & Van Wees, S. (2012). Hormonal modulation of plant immunity. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol.

[5] Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2002). Plant physiology (3rd ed., p. 306). New York: W.H. Freeman

[6] Berk, M., Dean, O., Drexhage, H., McNeil, J. J., Moylan, S., O’Neil, A., … Maes, M. (2013). Aspirin: a review of its neurobiological properties and therapeutic potential for mental illness. BMC Medicine, 11, 74. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-74

[7]Ayorech, Z., Tracy, D., Baumeister, D., & Giaroli, G. (2015). Taking the fuel out of the fire: Evidence for the use of anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 174, 467-478.

[8] Keller, W., Kum, L., Wehring, H., Koola, M., Buchanan, R., & Kelly, D. (2012). A review of anti-inflammatory agents for symptoms of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 27(4), 337-342.

World’s Healthiest Smoothie?

Where do you get your calories? Your phytonutrients?

Green leafy plants generally have a very high nutrient to calorie ratio.  This is related to the high surface to volume ratio in leaves – the sun’s energy is more available for nutrient manufacture.  However, generally leaves are rather tough and bitter, a protective defense developed by immobile plants. That’s a tough reality as the leaves of plants can provide an excellent variety of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals, and a vast array of phytonutrients.

Luckily, we don’t have to rely on leaves for our entire energy source; that would take a great deal of chewing time. Although that is precisely what our primate ancestors did for nearly 85 million years (see our new book The New Ancestral Diet).

But we don’t have that kind of time anymore, am I right? But given the powerful health benefits, how can one consume a significant amount of green leaves? The answer is food processing to assist with the chewing: smashing between stones (mortar and pestle for great pestos), cooking (laying in sun, roasting, baking, boiling, etc.) or my favorite: high speed blending.

There are some negatives to mechanical blending of fruits, green leafys and other vegetables in that the extreme disruption of cells not only releases the nutrients but allows an increased rate of oxidation of the antioxidants – but here is an important “biohack” to avoid nutrient loss that I researched “in my garage” titled Minimization of Oxidation Reaction during High Speed Blending; this is a critical consideration if you use high speed blending. I will illustrate that later in this offering.

Even so, I have found it difficult to eat more than about one pound of leaves per day (that is about seven cups of raw chopped kale, for example, providing about 200 calories).  This is partly because gathering time from the garden is significant and storage is rather a problem unless you shop every few days.  And leaves don’t freeze very well (although frozen spinach and collard greens, as examples, can be found in some supermarkets).  So, as much as you like the idea of being “powered by kale,” it ain’t gonna happen.

Epic smoothie recipe for health and happiness

Okay, so we have to gather fruits and veggies from somewhere. Fortunately, most ingredients can be from organic frozen sources (fruits and non-leafy veggies).  Plus many “superfoods” – nuts, seeds, dried leaves, stems and roots, can be stored at room temperature.

My goal is a meal that is fast to prepare and has maximum nutritional impact, with high nutrient to calorie ratio.  Smoothies such as detailed here can fulfill those criteria. (note: sip and swirl in your mouth – like a fine wine – to activate the important digestive enzymes there; I make this as a morning post-workout recovery drink and there is enough left over to provide sips during the afternoon – a controlled release nutrient biohack that eliminates the need for lunch). Once home, for supper I typically prepare what I call a Buddha Bowl, consisting of whole plant based foods such as wild rice, beans, garlic, onions, spices and herbs and chopped green leaves).

My smoothie recipe usually has fresh leaves, lots of frozen organic fruits and vegetables as the base and 11 other super ingredients (see below).  As the preparation of this can still be a wee bit time consuming if done individually, I make a dozen or so preparations at a time, vacuum seal and freeze. Then for a fast super smoothie, I just add to the frozen concoction fresh green leaves (first citrus and water as I shall explain later), place in a blender (I use a Vitamix) and bingo, a most nutritious meal in a snap!

Fruits and non-leafy vegetables

For my smoothies, I primarily use a frozen source for fruits and vegetables, although if I happen to have other non-frozen ingredients in the fridge (especially if they are becoming aged), I’ll throw them into the blender.  For this recipe, I chose the follow fruits and vegetables shown below.


The fruits I use here (shown on the left) are a mixture of organic frozen strawberries, blackberries, and blueberries from Chile and marketed by Cascadian Farms; package contents are 10 oz (284 gm) so about enough for two cups – I use one cup per smoothie.

The organic frozen vegetables are from the same distributor, consist of broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, and zucchini. Again one package is 10 oz (284 gm) and makes two cups, one of which I use for each smoothie.

The rest of the ingredients are non-frozen. I chose them for their variety of phytonutrients – they are all truly “super”:

Non-frozen superfoods for smoothie

Here is a list (no particular order) for this epic smoothie – I’ll explain why each was chosen later.

  1. Rhodiola (Rhodiola Rosea)
  2. Ashwagandha (roots of Withania Somnifera)
  3. Maca root (Lepidium meyenii)
  4. Tumeric
  5. Flax seeds
  6. Ground peppercorns
  7. Nutritional yeast
  8. Rooibos
  9. Hibiscus flowers
  10. Green tea
  11. Cacao



While some some evidence suggests that this plant may be helpful for enhancing physical performance and alleviating mental fatigue, as is the case with most plants, in particular herbs and spices, there are no definitive double blind placebo-controlled prospective studies that clearly demonstrate its efficacy.  However, it is loaded with phytonutrients such as polyphenols. It is supposedly adaptogenic, meaning that it does its good deeds without disturbing normal biologic functions.There are some claims that indicate use not only for stress and anxiety but also for depression; I’m working on fully exploring those claims; I’ll report on that at a later time.

I’m not even sure if it is an herb (plant leaf, stem, or flower used for flavoring or medicinal use) or a spice (same as herb but a root).  Various alternative names include “root,” such as the “red root” and the powder here is a deep red so I assume that it is primarily a root and therefore technically a spice.

My source for this is from Bulk Supplements ( – I order from Amazon and guided in my selection in part by happy consumers who have tried it and like it on some basis. Rhodiola Rosea 3% Salidroside Powder (100 grams) costs about $18.  I use a little less than one eighth of a teaspoon, about 300 mg.  I’m unsure of where this was harvested although it can grow on cold rocky slopes in the USA; it has been suggested to assist those living in very cold stressful environments such as Siberia and northern Europe. It has a shelf life of 3 or more years.

On the left is a picture of the addition to my smoothie ingredient bowl.


There are many claims concerning the health benefits of Ashwagandha root but most all of them are concerning reduction of adrenal stress (anxiety) and reduction of inflammation; there are many peer reviewed studies, including systematic review summaries, that are rather convincing.  Positive influences on neurodegenerative diseases such as cognitive decline and dementias are suggested.  Again, more on this in a later communication.

It is likely helpful to ingest this substance after exercise, particularly endurance workouts or heavy lifting (supposedly helps to stimulate muscle recovery).

Also this Ayurvedic has been used to help treat insomnia.

On the left is a picture of my addition to the superfood mixture. The amount used here, suggested by the literature studies, is one half of a teaspoon, about 1600 mg.

Maca rootIMG_1080

Maca has been cultivated and grown high in the Andrean Mountains of Peru for thousands of years.

Like Rhodiola, it flourishes in extreme environments of freezing cold winds, strong sunlight, and high elevation (over 10,000 feet).  There does appear to be a correlation between plants that survive in stressful circumstances and the adaptogen effects that such plants have on the human body and mind.

The root of the Maca plant has been used for centuries as a nutritive substance that raises the body’s state of resistance to disease by increasing immunity to stress while remaining nontoxic to the recipient.

The shelf life is an amazing seven years.  Maca is powerfully abundant in amino acids, phytonutrients, healthy fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. This superfood allegedly has the ability to increase energy and stamina, working directly on the hypothalamus and pituitary glands.

Once again, there are some indications of positive effect on mood and I am searching the literature for substantiation.

On the left shows the addition of two tablespoons of Maca powered root, the “premium” combination of Peruvian sources from this recommended source.














You are more likely to have heard of this one.  Turmeric is a spice with perhaps the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of any culinary spice – or herb. An active component of turmeric is curcumin (the pigment responsible for the bright yellow color of the spice), which may have natural antidepressant qualities and has been shown in animal studies to protect neurons from the damaging effects of chronic stress. The literature is quickly mounting support for mental health enhancement.

Turmeric suppresses pain and inflammation similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. The mechanism of action is similar without the potential side effects. The health benefits derive, as for Rhodiola and Maca, from “xenohormesis” – a biological principle that explains why environmentally stressed plants produce bioactive compounds that can confer stress resistance and survival benefits to animals that consume them.

A selection, suggested from the literature, of 1 gram, equal to one teaspoon is used here.  On the left is a picture of my grating of a turmeric root used in this smoothie but this is so color intense (one should use gloves; otherwise your hands and fingernails appear yellow as a very heavy smoker).  On the right is the quantity added to our mixture.


I am confident you know of this food and that it is most beneficial to health.  There is certainly no doubt that this food is an excellent source of essential omega-3 fats in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (known as ALA), the basic building block to other omega-3’s such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid).

These fatty substrates are used in several critical constructions of neuronal constituents and thus important in proper functioning of the brain.  The other major source is certain algae, a dilute source with contamination and harvesting challenges.  One could eat fish the fish livers that sequester the fatty acids form algae but that detoxifying organ contain many toxins that are unfriendly to humans, notably mercury.

Certainly much research has indicated the mental health benefits to consumption of flax seeds that I shall summarize in a later offering.

On the left I use  one tablespoon of flaxseed that contains easily a daily recommended dose.

IMG_1084Ground peppercorns

Black pepper has an ancient history of being a highly desirable but expensive spice.  It has even been used as a currency.

The Journal of Food and Chemical Toxicology reported that the compound piperine in black pepper increases the cognitive function of the brain and helps beat depression. Other studies agree, although as yet not fully accepted.  Piperine helps the body absorb curcumin and therefore enhances its antidepressant effect long-term, according to studies on rats conducted in India. There may be similar absorption assistance given to selenium, vitamin B12, and beta-carotene.

Because of its intense taste, it is typically used in small quantities and for our smoothie we use just a few “pinches” as shown to the left.

IMG_1085Nutritional Yeast

Impressive research exists that supports a positive effect of nutritional yeast on stress and related immune function resulting, for example, in a decrease for the susceptibility to the common cold. Beta glucan fiber, found in baker’s, brewer’s and nutritional yeast, helps to maintain our body’s defense against pathogens. And this is extended to improvement in mood states, related to immune vitality and emotional vitality. For endurance athletes who place significant stress upon their bodies, regular ingestion of this substance is recommended.

We use here one heaping teaspoon of Bragg’s nutritional yeast.  This has a nutty, cheesy flavor as opposed to Brewer’s yeast that is quite bitter. This product is fortified with vitamin B12, an interesting pairing of nutritional fungal and bacterial sources.


Research conducted in Japan shows that rooibos, or “red tea”, possesses antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity. Rooibos is especially rich in the super-antioxidant compound quercetin. Rooibos is a source of two comparatively rare antioxidants, aspalathin and nothofagin. Aspalathin helps to modify hormones in the body and reduces the output of adrenal hormones, thus reducing stress and helping to inhibit metabolic disorders.  The antioxidant nothofagin demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory activity and neuroprotective functions.

Note this is a tea, so why not buy teabags, add hot water and drink it?  Well that’s fine but much more expensive than bulk purchase. While the process of preparing, serving, and sipping tea can be an art, we are here merely interested in the nutrient value – and efficiency of preparation. Steeping in hot water extracts water-soluble components of the plant and that which enters into solution if the fibrous cell walls are sufficiently disrupted by the heating process. As a food, the entire leaf can be eaten and all nutrients consumed. By the way a bio-hack to optimize antioxidants in tea is found in my article Synergism of Tea Plant and Citrus for Optimum Health.

A dose here suggested from literature studies is one teaspoon.

IMG_1087Hibiscus flowers

Another herbal “tea
“, Hibiscus flowers are beautiful showy red flowers that are harvested and dried as most teas.  This plant contains bioflavonoids, which are believed to help prevent an increase in LDL cholesterol, and lower blood pressure.  The research is quite clear on these effects. It may work by boosting nitric oxide production, generally an advantage for cardiovascular activities.

Again, why bother to make “tea” with this food and limit the nutrient availability when you can eat it!

I use here a heaping tablespoon for our super-mixture.

IMG_1088Green Tea

The third “tea” is Green Tea, or just “tea”.  Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. It comes from an evergreen called Camellia sinensis. “Green” tea merely refers to the natural state of the Tea Plant; in the United States, the preferred tea is “black” tea, a less healthy oxidized version. Green tea offers incredible health benefits but is consumed mainly for its psychoactive ingredients: caffeine and l-theanine.  The stimulating effect of caffeine is modulated by the calming effect of l-theanine.

Tea is very rich in polyphenols, accounting for up to 30% of the dry weight of tea. Tea has positive effects on cognitive functioning beyond the stimulating effect from caffeine through possibly enhancing short-term plasticity in the pare-frontal brain areas.

Drinking green tea is associated with reduced mortality due to many causes, too many to mention here but includes lowering blood pressure, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. 



Raw unprocessed cocoa is one of the richest antioxidant foods in the world. Studies indicate that cocoa has an effect on carbon dioxide levels that affect blood vessels and improve blood flow.  This has positive implications, for example, on reducing the risk of stroke.

Any form other than raw contains typically added fat and sugar and is to be avoided.

Let’s add a tablespoon of cocoa (also termed cacao) nibs.

Ingredients combined, evacuated, and frozen

Below are pictures of our dry mixture (left); also adding it to the vacuum bag (picture on the below right)










Next a cup of the frozen fruits and a cup of the frozen vegetables are added (below)










Then the bag is evacuated (below).  A ten-day supply was generated as shown below on the right.









How to blend in order to maximize nutrition

The first step to blending any fruits or vegetables is to create a pH environment that slows down the oxidation of the critical anti-oxidant phytonutrients with disruption of the cellular contents as happens in all forms of processing, including high speed blending.  I have referenced above the science behind this in my article Minimization of Oxidation Reaction during High Speed Blending.The need is to provide a low pH blending fluid and citric acid in the blender prior to the introduction of the fruits and vegetables (this inhibits the activity of polyphenoloxidase that assists oxidation).

IMG_1102IMG_1105 On the far left is a picture of my Vitamix; next to it is about one cup of filtered water and one lemon, quartered with skin and seeds intact. The next picture is of the blending of water and whole lemon until it is smoooth.

The rest of the contents of the smoothie can now be added without fear of reducing the nutrient value by the high speed blending.  Go ahead and blend at the highest speeds for as long as you wish. I like “smooth” smoothies so I typically add plenty of filtered water and blend at the highest setting for about 30 – 45 seconds.



Next I take a heaping cup of frozen chopped spinach. and add that to the pH adjusted solution.




Finally the addition of the vacuumed sealed super-nutrient mixture that was prepared and frozen earlier.

The mixing of all ingredients is shown to the left (my foot, lower left, is “grounding” – hey, can’t hurt).  The whole mixing process takes about 5 minutes.


To your health

IMG_1119Well that’s it.  The taste of this particular concoction is “nutritious”.  I wouldn’t say it is “delicious”, but certainly palatable.  I’m mainly interested in long-term happy survival here, not culinary flavor optimization – that is for special occasions, this is for frequent consumption.

Note my “green smoothie” isn’t green, instead has a reddish brown color.  That is a result of the berries and most of the super herbs, spices, and teas that have a red or brown color. Not pretty perhaps, but pretty great nonetheless.

I welcome comments and suggestions.  Think you can beat this smoothie for health impact? Let me know!




Johnson & Johnson attempting to patent anti-inflammatory drug


We are beginning to elucidate the relationship chronic inflammation has on mood disorders and neuronal disease, as for heart disease and other major diseases of the Western World.  Eating a  whole food plant based diet is the key. Simple right?

Wrong. Getting people to base their diet on health and survival rather than flavor is no easy task.

One cannot patent food.  Enter big Pharma.  Drug trials are being run by Johnson & Johnson, enrolling patients with depression at sites in Russia, Poland, Canada, and the United States. The company is testing an experimental drug called sirukumab, which blocks a key inflammatory protein called interleukin 6.

This is just the beginning of anti-inflammatory pills.