Archive of ‘antioxidants’ category
by R. Aiken MD PhD @rcaiken
Flaxseed helps lower cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, is anti-inflammatory, has good anti-oxidants, and fiber. It is the single most neuroprotective food; oh yes, then there is the omega-3 content.
There is no doubt that this food is an excellent source of essential omega-3 fats in the form of alpha-linolenic acid, the basic building block to other omega-3s – eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Omega-3, and a proper omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, is important in mental wellness and recovery from psychiatric disorders.
But flaxseed offers more than just the ideal omega-3 source; it contains many polyphenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and lignans along with vitamins C and E. One study found that flaxseed significantly decreased chronic stress (cortisol) levels, indicating a possible synergistic effect between omega-3 fatty acid and polyphenols. Other components such as a flaxseed lignan (a phytoestrogen compound called secoisolariciresinol) has been shown to have possible applications in post-menopausal depression.
Studies of flaxseed oil supplementation have indicated a good tolerance even in the pediatric population where one study indicated its effectiveness in child bipolar disorder.
I recommend a daily intake of one to three tablespoons of ground flax, each tablespoon of which contains about 30 calories, 2.5 grams fat, 2 grams fiber, and 1.5 grams protein. Be sure to grind the flaxseeds as the fine seeds with their hard shell will likely just pass on through the gut otherwise. Flaxseeds can be ground in a coffee bean grinder and the ground powder added to grains, salads, beans – practically any dish for a little texture.
Note that the shelf life of the oily seeds is limited unless kept in an airtight container in the fridge or freezer. Ground flaxseeds or flax meal should be kept in the freezer; at room temperature and exposed to air, use the ground seeds within one week. Smell the flax – if it has a strong odor such as fishy smell, it may be rancid. A taste test should reveal a mild nutty flavor – if bitter or sour that also may be a signal that it is rancid.
For these reasons, chia seeds, rich in antioxidants and omega-3 PUFAs may be preferable to some.
 Oomah, B. D., Kenaschuk, E. O., & Mazza, G. (1995). Phenolic Acids in Flaxseed. J. Agric. Food Chem. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43(8), 2016-2019. doi:10.1021/jf00056a011.
 Bidlack, W. W. (1999). Functional Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects, G. Mazza, ed. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 437 pp, 1998. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 18(6), 640-641. doi:10.1080/07315724.1999.10718899.
 Naveen, S., Siddalingaswamy, M., Singsit, D., & Khanum, F. (2013). Anti-depressive effect of polyphenols and omega-3 fatty acid from pomegranate peel and flax seed in mice exposed to chronic mild stress. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 67(7), 501-508. doi:10.1111/pcn.12100.
 Wang, Y., Xu, Z., Yang, D., Yao, H., Ku, B., Ma, X., . . . Cai, S. (2012). The antidepressant effect of secoisolariciresinol, a lignan-type phytoestrogen constituent of flaxseed, on ovariectomized mice. Journal of Natural Medicines,67(1), 222-227. doi:10.1007/s11418-012-0655-x.
 Gracious, B. L., Chirieac, M. C., Costescu, S., Finucane, T. L., Youngstrom, E. A., & Hibbeln, J. R. (2010). Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of flax oil in pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 12(2), 142-154. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00799.x.
 A very convenient way to have ground flax ready to serve is provided by Carrington Farms Organic Ground Milled Flax Seeds, two tablespoon packets sealed and lasting without refrigeration about one year.
by R. Aiken MD PhD @rcaiken
Foods and beverages made with beans from the Theobroma cacao tree have been consumed by humans for over 5000 years, in pre-Colombian cultures along the Yucatan, including the Mayans.
Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the fruit of the cocoa tree, native to the Americas. Cocoa liquor is the paste made from ground, roasted, shelled, and fermented cocoa beans, called nibs. It contains both nonfat cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Cocoa liquor is what is referred to as ‘‘percent cacao’’ on food packaging. Cocoa powder is made by removing some of the cocoa butter from the liquor.
Chocolate is a solid food made by combining cocoa liquor with cocoa butter and sugar. The proportion of cocoa liquor in the final product determines how dark the chocolate is. Milk chocolate, typically containing 10%–12% cocoa liquor, is made with the addition of condensed or powdered milk to the chocolate mixture and is the chocolate consumed most in the United States. Semisweet or bittersweet chocolate is often referred to as dark chocolate and must contain no less than 35% by weight of cocoa liquor.
Raw unprocessed cocoa is one of the richest antioxidant foods in the world. Studies indicate that cocoa has an effect on carbon dioxide levels that affect blood vessels and improve blood flow. This has positive implications, for example, on reducing the risk of stroke.
Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, mainly flavanols, which have been recognized for having positive effects on vascular disease, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood pressure. Because flavanols have the capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier, enhancing brain blood flow through the increased production of NO, which has been proposed as a mechanism involved in brain health
Any form other than raw typically contains added fat and sugar and is to be avoided.
Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks of obesity and glycemic load.
 Wood, G.A.R.; Lass, R.A. (2001). Cocoa (4th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Science.
 Shrime, M. G., Bauer, S. R., Mcdonald, A. C., Chowdhury, N. H., Coltart, C. E., & Ding, E. L. (2011). Flavonoid-Rich Cocoa Consumption Affects Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Meta-Analysis of Short-Term Studies. Journal of Nutrition, 141(11), 1982-1988. doi:10.3945/jn.111.145482.
 Nehlig, A. (2012). The neuroprotective effects of cocoa flavanol and its influence on cognitive performance. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Br J Clin Pharmacol. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04378.x.
by R. Aiken MD PhD @rcaiken
Turmeric is a spice with perhaps the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of any culinary spice – or herb. One active component of turmeric is curcumin (the pigment responsible for the bright yellow color of the spice), which may have natural antidepressant qualities and has been shown to protect neurons from the damaging effects of chronic stress.
The beneficial effects of curcumin in the pathophysiology of major depression are probably related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, inhibition of monoamine oxidase, and modulation of neurotrophic factors and hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.
In a randomized controlled trial , a comparable efficacy was obtained after curcumin monotherapy (1000 mg/day) compared to fluoxetine monotherapy. Supplementation of conventional antidepressants with curcumin (1000 mg/ day) has shown to be an effective and safe enhancement.
Meta-analysis of data from the six clinical trials revealed a significant reduction in major depressive symptoms following the administration of curcumin in combination with piperdine (see below). These studies all used the 1000 mg/ day and the anti-depressant effect was best after a duration of six weeks.
Turmeric suppresses pain and inflammation similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatories but without the potential side effects. The health benefits derive, as for Rhodiola and Maca, from “xenohormesis” – a biological principle that explains why environmentally stressed plants produce bioactive compounds that can confer stress resistance and survival benefits to animals that consume them (see Chapter 6).
Turmeric contains about 2% by weight curcumin, so a tablespoon of turmeric (6.8 grams) contains about 136 mg of curcumin. To get 1000 mg/ day curcumin from raw turmeric would then require more than seven tablespoons. Supplements that purport to contain 500 mg curcumin are commercially available.
One tablespoon of turmeric (1000 mg) per day with a pinch or two of ground pepper (see below) is recommended. If you grate the turmeric root yourself, be prepared to wear gloves as the color is so intense you will have yellow finger tips otherwise.
 Kulkarni, S. K., Bhutani, M. K., & Bishnoi, M. (2008). Antidepressant activity of curcumin: Involvement of serotonin and dopamine system. Psychopharmacology, 201(3), 435-442. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1300-y.
 Liu, D., Wang, Z., Gao, Z., Xie, K., Zhang, Q., Jiang, H., & Pang, Q. (2014). Effects of curcumin on learning and memory deficits, BDNF, and ERK protein expression in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress. Behavioural Brain Research, 271, 116-121. doi:10.1016/ j.bbr.2014.05.068.
 Sanmukhani, J., Satodia, V., Trivedi, J., Patel, T., Tiwari, D., Panchal, B., . . . Tripathi, C. B. (2013). Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytother. Res. Phytotherapy Research, 28(4), 579-585. doi:10.1002/ptr.5025.
 Yu, J., Pei, L., Zhang, Y., Wen, Z., & Yang, J. (2015). Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1. doi:10.1097/jcp.0000000000000352.
 Al-Karawi, D., Mamoori, D. A., & Tayyar, Y. (2015). The Role of Curcumin Administration in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Mini Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Phytother. Res. Phytotherapy Research, 30(2), 175-183. doi:10.1002/ptr.5524.
by Richard Aiken MD PhD @rcaiken
Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) is a bush native to the Cedarberg Mountains in the Western Cape region of South Africa where it is extensively cultivated for its commercial use as an herbal tea. After harvesting, the needle-like leaves and stems can be either fermented prior to drying or dried immediately. The unfermented product remains green in color and is referred to as green rooibos. During fermentation, the color changes from green to red with oxidation of the constituent polyphenols, so the final product is often referred to as “red tea” or “red bush tea.” The non-oxidized green version, let’s call it “green herbal tea,” would be superior in antioxidants.
Rooibos possesses antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity, as does unfermented green herbal tea.
Rooibos is especially rich in the super-antioxidant compound quercetin. Rooibos is a source of two comparatively rare antioxidants, aspalathin and nothofagin. Aspalathin helps to modify hormones in the body and reduces the output of adrenal hormones, thus reducing stress and helping to inhibit metabolic disorders. The antioxidant nothofagin demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory activity and neuroprotective functions.
As this is a tea, why not buy teabags, add hot water and drink it? Well that’s fine, but much more expensive than bulk purchase. While the process of preparing, serving, and sipping tea can be an art, we are here interested in the nutrient value – and efficiency of preparation. Steeping in hot water extracts only a portion of the water-soluble components (such as polyphenols) of the plant, i.e., that which enters into solution if the fibrous cell walls are sufficiently disrupted by the heating process – the rest is discarded in the tea bag.
But as a food, the entire leaf can be eaten and all nutrients consumed. A dose suggested from literature studies is one teaspoon.
 Joubert, E., Gelderblom, W., Louw, A., & Beer, D. D. (2008). South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp. and Athrixia phylicoides – A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119(3), 376-412. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.06.014.
 Mckay, D. L., & Blumberg, J. B. (2006). A review of the bioactivity of south African herbal teas: Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia). Phytother. Res. Phytotherapy Research, 21(1), 1-16. doi:10.1002/ptr.1992.
Intense physical exercise is often associated with an increase in the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various tissues, which may overwhelm the capacity of the antioxidant defense systems.
Oxidative stress, induced by the accumulation of large amounts of ROS and an imbalance between ROS and antioxidants, can lead to the destruction of tissue and cell macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. It has been suggested that exercise-induced oxidative stress may be associated with muscle fatigue, muscle damage, and a decrease in physical performance.
Use of green tea prevents oxidative stress in endurance athletes. Polyphenols from Hibiscus flowers appear to induce an endothelium-dependent relaxant effect via stimulation of nitric oxide production or a decrease of blood viscosity.
Adding hot water to tea bags help solubilize the polyphenols because the temperature softens the cells walls and increases the solubility of cellular contents; steeping 5 minutes or so is enough. But there is a “biohack” that can get the goodies into solution even faster: blending. The reason is that agitation in the aqueous environment and particle size reduction aids the extraction. High-speed blenders can get the particle size down below 100 microns and the agitation is maximal. Reduction of tea time availability: 5 minutes from “steeping” to less than 30 seconds using blending.
Here is what I do to make a “water bottle” mixture for exercise. This uses bulk tea leaves (no tea bags, which are much more expensive).
- Place one to three tablespoons of raw dried Hibiscus flowers into a blender (mine is 64 ounce capacity).
- (optional) Add one to three tablespoons green tea leaves.
- Add a tablespoon of lemon or lime juice (to protect the antioxidants when blending).
- Add ice (optional) and water to three quarters of the capacity of the blender.
- (optional) If the sour bitter taste is an issue (I actually prefer it), add a date or date syrup to taste.
 Alessio, H. M. (1993). Exercise-induced oxidative stress. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 25(2). doi:10.1249/00005768-199302000-00010
 Jówko, E., Długołęcka, B., Makaruk, B., & Cieśliński, I. (2015). The effect of green tea extract supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress parameters in male sprinters. European Journal Of Nutrition, 54(5), 783-791. doi:10.1007/s00394-014-0757-1