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Death by Suicide of US Children in Epidemic Rates

by Richard Aiken MD PhD @rcaiken

Summary

The three most common causes of death in children, suicide, vehicular accidents, and neoplasms, are approximately of equal incidence but suicides are increasing at an alarming rate.

 

While even the definition of the age of an individual considered to be a “child” varies in the literature, consensus to group statistics that aggregates age in bands of 5 years would suggest a population under 15 leading to the age range considered here 10 to 14 years inclusive.

Suicide requires that the individual executing it understand the concept of death.  This appears to be the case generally for children older than 8 years old[1], and many of them are capable of planning, attempting and dying by suicide[2].

Deaths by suicide are generally under reported because of the associated stigma; this is particularly true of children[3] with cause of death reported as accidents rather than suicide.

The following data on the death of children by suicide[4] come from the Global Burden of Disease assembled by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington.

Death by Suicide: Male Children

suicide males US 10 - 14

Figure 1 Death by Suicide US Male Children

For male children ages 10 through and including 14 years old, Figure 1 indicates a recent sharp rise in the death rate by suicide. The most recent death rate is 15.6% from 2014 as reported by the National Center for Health Statistics. This compares to 6.2% in 2007 – a more than doubling the suicide rate in seven years.

Death by Suicide: Female Children

For female children in the US, the trend is similar as shown in Figure 2.  In 2014, 13.4% of the cause of death was by suicide, up from 3.8% in 2007 – more than tripling the rate in seven years.

suic females US 10-14

Figure 2 Death by Suicide US Female Children

Even disregarding outlier data, there is no doubt that suicide rates among our children is significantly on the rise.

Death by Vehicular Accidents: Males

Compare the cause of suicide death for male children to that of vehicular accidents, shown in Figure 3.  Note that fortunately this cause of death is declining and in 2014 was 16.7%, similar to the rate of suicide.

veh male 10-14

Figure 3 Death by Vehicular Accidents of US Male Children

Death by Vehicular Accidents: Females

Figure 4 shows the death rate of females by vehicular accidents. Note that fortunately this cause of death is declining and in 2014 was 15.4%, similar to the rate of suicide.

veh death female 10-14

Figure 4 Death by Vehicular Accidents in US Female Children

Other cause of death for US Children

Neoplasms cause about 15% of the deaths for male and female children in the US and appears to be rather steady over the past two decades.

Suicide rate shifting to younger age group

suicde age male 2000

Figure 5 Suicide Rate by Age US Males 2000 – 2004

suic age male 2010

Figure 6 Suicide Rate by Age US Males 2010 – 2016

Figures 5 and 6 illustrate the suicide rate of US males for various ages in 2000 – 2004 compared to that in 2010 – 2016.  In this rather short time interval, the most likely mean rate changed from about 25 to 15 years old. Data for females are very similar with the same approximate means for the two time intervals.

This is further indication of the crisis of suicides in our children.

 

References

[1] Mishara, B. L. (1998). Childhood conceptions of death and suicide: Empirical investigations and implications of suicide prevention. In D. De Leo, A. Schmidtke, & Diekstra, R. F. (Eds.), Suicide prevention: A holistic approach (pp. 111-119). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

[2] Tishler, C. L., Reiss, N. S., & Rhodes, A. R. (2007). Suicidal behaviour in children younger than twelve: A diagnostic challenge for emergency department personnel. Academic Emergency Medicine, 14, 810-818.

[3] Crepeau-Hobson, F. (2010). The psychological autopsy and determination of child suicides: A survey of medical examiners. Archives of Suicide Research, 14, 24-34.

[4] Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). Causes of Death (COD) Data Visualization. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington, 2017. Available from http://vizhub.healthdata.org/cod. (Accessed February 18, 2018)

 

 

  • Gerardus Mercator

    I’m not a conspiration theory follower or an anti-tech person in anyway, on the contrary, I truly and particulary believe in the advancements of the Internet around the globe.
    BUT, could it be that, the first and second graphics, those regarding suicide among children have anything to do about the Internet at all?
    I can definitely say that among adults in my hometown country the internet is helping young adults do that in many ways. I lost a brother on suicide a few years ago and very recently a friend and former co worker through the very same method. Told by some they’ve found in over the Internet.
    Just a thought and a start point to the ‘specialists’.